• Coggan R, Coyle EF. Reversal of fatigue during prolonged exercise by carbohydrate infusion or ingestion. J Appl Physiol 1987; 63: 2388-2395.
  • Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hemmert MK, et al. Muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged strenuous exercise when fed carbohydrate. J Appl Physiol 1986; 61: 165-172.
  • Peronnet F, Adopo E, Massicotte D. Exogenous substrate oxidation during exercise: studies using isotopic labeling. Int J Sports Med 1992; 13: S123-125.
  • Hargreaves M, Costill DL, Coggan A, et al. Effect of carbohydrate feedings on muscle glycogen utilization and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984; 16: 219-222.
  • Coyle EF, Hagberg JM, Hurley BF, et al. Carbohydrate feeding during prolonged strenuous exercise can delay fatigue. J Appl Physiol 1983; 55: 230-235.
  • Yaspelkis BI, Patterson J, Anderla P, et al. Carbohydrate supplementation

spares muscle glycogen during variable intensity exercise. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75: 1477-1485.

  • American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand: Female Athlete Triad. Med Sci

Sports Exerc. 1997;29:i-ix.

  • American College of Sports Medicine. Position stand on exercise and fluid

replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996a;28(1):i-vii.

  • American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand on heat and cold illnesses during

distance running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996b;28(12):i-x.

  • American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition

intervention in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge
eating. J Am Diet Assoc. 1994;94:902-907.

  • American Dietetic Association. Position of The American Dietetic Association,

Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and
athletic performance. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100(12):1543-1556. Authors: M

  • Manore, S Barr, G Butterfield.

Barr SI. Effects of dehydration on exercise. Can J Appl Physiol. 1999;24:164-172.

  • Beals KA. Disordered eating in athletes: A comprehensive guide to health

professionals. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publisher, 2004.

  • Benardot D, Thompson WR. Energy from food for physical activity. Enough and on

time. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal. 1999;3(4):14-18.

  • Bergman BC, Butterfield GE,Wolfe EE, Casazza GA, Lopaschuk GD, Brooks GA.
  • Evaluation of exercise and training on muscle lipid metabolism. Am J Physiol.

1999;276:E106-117.

  • Bergman BC, Brooks GA. Respiratory gas-exchange ratios during graded exercise in

fed and fasted trained and untrained men. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86:479-487.

  • Brinkley HM, Beckett J, Casa DJ, Kleiner DM, Plummer PE. National Athletic Trainers'
  • Association Position Statement: Exertional heat illness. J Athletic Training

2002;37(3):329-343.

  • Brooks GA, Mercier J. Balance of carbohydrate and lipid utilization during exercise.

The cross over concept. J Appl Physiol. 1994;76:2253-2261.

  • Brooks GA, Trimmer J. Literature supports the cross over concept (Letter to the

Editor.) J Appl Physiol. 1995;80:1073-1075.

  • Burke LM, Collier GR, Davis PG, Fricker PA, Sanigorski AJ, Hargreaves M. Muscle

glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: effect of the frequency of carbohydrate
feedings. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:115-119.

  • Burke LM. The IOC Consensus on Sport Nutrition 2003: New guidelines for nutrition

for athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Ex Metab. 2003;13; 549-552.

  • Burke LM, Kiens B, Ivy JL. Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. J Sports

Sci. 2004;22:15-30.

  • Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Hillman SK, Montain SJ, Reiff RV, Rich BSE, Roberts WO,

Stone JA. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Fluid
replacement for athletes. J Athletic Training 2000;35(2):212-224.

  • Coyle EF. Substrate utilization during exercise in active people. Am J Clin Nutr

1995;61(suppl): 968S-79S.

  • Coyle EF. Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004;22:39-55.
  • Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hemmert MK, Ivy JL. Muscle glycogen utilization during

prolonged strenuous exercise when fed carbohydrate. J Appl Physiol.
1986;61:165-172.

  • Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Williams PT, Krauss RM. A very low-fat diet is not

associated with improved lipoprotein profiles in men with a predominance of large
low-density lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:411-418.

  • El-Khoury AE, Forslund A, Olsson R, Branth S, Sjodin A, Anderson A, Atkinson A,

Selvaraj A, Hambraeus L, and Young VR. Moderate exercise at energy balance does
not affect 24-h leucine oxidation or nitrogen retention in healthy men. Am J
Physiol. 1997;273:E394-E407.

  • Freund BJ, Sawka MN. Influence of cold stress on human fluid balance. In: Marriott

BM, Carlson SJ, eds. Nutritional Needs in Cold and in High-Altitude Environments.
Committee on Military Nutrition Research.Washington, DC: National Academy
Press, 1996, p. 161-179.

  • Food and Nutrition Board. Recommended Dietary Allowances (10th ed.).Washington,

DC: National Academy Press, 1989.

  • Hargreaves M, Hawley JA, Jeukendrup A. Pre-exercise carbohydrate and fat

ingestion: effects on metabolism and performance. J Sports Sci. 2004;22:31-38.

  • Harber VJ. Menstrual dysfunction in athletes: an energetic challenge. Exerc Sport Sci

Rev. 2000;28:19-23.

  • Horvath PJ, Eagen CK, Ryer-Calvin SD, Pendergast DR. The effects of varying dietary

fat on the nutrient intake of male and female runners. J Am Coll Nutr.
2000;19(1):42-51.

  • Horvath PJ, Eagen CK, Fisher NM, Leddy JJ, Pendergast DR. The effects of varying

dietary fat on performance and metabolism in trained male and female runners.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(1):52-60.

  • Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary reference intakes. Calcium, phosphorus,

magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

  • Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary reference intakes. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin,

vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.
Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.

  • Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary reference intakes. Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.
  • Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary reference intakes. Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic,Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodoine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon,Vanadium and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.
  • Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary reference intakes. Energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: National

Academy Press, 2002.

  • Jeukendrup AE, Saris WHM. Fat as a fuel during exercise. In: Berning JR, Steen SN,

eds. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers Inc,
1998, p. 59-76.

  • Lambert EV, Speechly DP, Dennis SC, Noakes TD. Enhanced endurance in trained

cyclists during moderate intensity exercise following 2 weeks adaptation to a high
fat diet. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1994;69:287-293.

  • Lemon PWR. Effects of exercise on dietary protein requirements. Int J Sport Nutr.

1998;8:426-447.

  • Lemon PWR. Beyond the Zone: Protein needs of active individuals. J Am Coll Nutr.

2000;19(5):513S-521S.

  • Loucks AB. Energy balance and body composition in sports and exercise. J Sports

Sci. 2004;22:1-14.

  • Manore MM. The effect of physical activity on thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6

requirements. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(suppl):598S-606S.

  • Manore MM. Dietary recommendations and athletic menstrual dysfunction. Sports

Medicine 2002;32(14):887-901.

  • Manore MM. Nutritional Needs of the Female Athlete. In: Wheeler KB, Lombardo JA,

eds. Clinics in Sports Medicine: Nutritional Aspects of Exercise. WB Sanders
Company: Philadelphia, PA, 1999;18(3-July), 549-563.

  • Manore MM, Thompson JL. Sport Nutrition for Health and Performance. Champaign,

IL: Human Kinetics Publisher, 2000.

  • Maughan RJ, Leiper JB. Sodium intake and post-exercise rehydration in man. Eur J

Appl Physiol 1995;75:311-319.

  • Maughan RJ, Leiper JB, Shirreffs SM. Restoration of fluid balance after exerciseinduced

dehydration: Effects of food and fluid intake. Eur J Appl Physiol.
1996;73:317-325.

  • Maughan RJ, King DS, Trevor L. Dietary supplements. J Sports Sci. 2004;22:95-113.
  • McConnell GK, Burge CM, Skinner SL, Hargreaves M. Influence of ingested fluid

volume on physiological responses during prolonged exercise. Acta Physiol Scan.
1997;160:149-156.

  • McConnell G, Kloot K, Hargreaves M. Effect of timing of carbohydrate ingestion on

endurance exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:1300-1304.

  • Muoio BM, Leddy JJ, Horvath PJ, Awad AB, Pendergast DR. Effect of dietary fat on

metabolic adjustments to maximal VO2 and endurance in runners. Med Sci Sports
Exerc. 1994;26:81-88.

  • Noakes TD. Fluid replacement during exercise. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1993;21:297-330.
  • Phillips SM, Atkinson SA, Tarnopolsky MA, and MacDougall JD, Gender differences in

leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance in endurance athletes. J Appl Physiol.
1993;75:2134-2141.

  • Powers SK, DeRuisseau KC, Quindry J, Hamilton KL. Dietary antioxidants and

exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004;22:81-94.

  • Sarubin A. The Health Professional's Guide to Popular Dietary Supplements. Chicago,

IL: American Dietetic Association, 2000.

  • Shirreffs SM, Taylor AJ, Leiper JB, Maughan RJ. Post-exercise rehydration in man:

Effects of volume consumed and drink sodium content. Med Sci Sports Exerc.
1996;28:1260-1271.

  • Shirreffs SM, Armstrong LE, Cheuvront SN. Fluid and electrolyte needs for preparation and recovery from training and competition. J Sports Sci. 2004;22:57-63.
  • Sobal J, Marquart LF. Vitamin/mineral supplement use among athletes: A review of

the literature. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994;4:320-34.

  • Spriet LL, Gibala MJ. Nutritional strategies to influence adaptations to training.

J Sports Sci. 2004;22:127-141.

  • Sundgot-Borgen J. Eating Disorders. In: Berning JR, Steen SN, eds. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers Inc, 1998, p.187-203.

Swinburn B, Ravussin E. Energy balance or fat balance? Am J Clin Nutr.
1993;57(suppl):766S-771S.

  • Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, MacDougall JD, Chesley A, Phillips SM, Schwarcz H.

Evaluation of protein requirements for trained strength athletes. J Appl Physiol.
1992;73:1986-1995.

  • Thompson JL, Manore MM. Body weight regulation and energy needs: weight loss.

In: Driskell JA,Wolinsky I, eds. Energy-Yielding Macronutrients and Energy

  • Metabolism in Sports Nutrition. Boca Raton, LA: CRC Press, 2000, 291-308.

Tipton KD,Wolfe RR. Protein and amino acids for athletes. J Sports Sci. 2004;22:65-79.

  • Walsh RM, Noakes TD, Hawley JA, Dennis SC. Impaired high-intensity cycling

performance time at low levels of dehydration. Int J Sports Med. 1994;15:392-398.

  • Williams C, Nute MG, Broadbank L, et al. Influence of fluid intake on endurance running performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 60: 112-119.
  • Ivy JL, Goforth HW, Jr., Damon BM, et al. Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrateprotein supplement. J Appl Physiol 2002; 93: 1337-1344.
  • Ivy JL, Res PT, Sprague RC, et al. Effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement on endurance performance during exercise of varying intensity. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003; 13: 382-395.
  • Markus CR, Olivier B, Panhuysen GE, et al. The bovine protein alpha-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 1536-1544.
  • Markus CR, Jonkman LM, Lammers JH, et al. Evening intake of alpha-lactalbumin increases plasma tryptophan availability and improves morning alertness and brain measures of attention. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 1026-1033.
  • Salehian B, Kejriwal K. Glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Endocr Pract 1999; 5: 277-281.
  • Shaw B, Shaw I and Brown G. (2008). Self-reported dietary intake following endurance, resistance and concurrent endurance and resistance training. J Sports Sci Med 2008; 7:255-59.
  • Gómez del Valle M, Rosety Rodríguez M, Ordoñez Muñoz FJ, Ribelles García A. Efecto de la hora del día sobre parámetros bioquímicos y desempeño físico. Rev int med cienc act fís deporte 2002; 2:99-108.
  • 15. Carli G, Bonifazi M, Lodi L, Lupo C, Martelli G, Viti A. Changes in the exercise-induced hormone response to branched chain amino acid administration. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1992; 64: 272-277.
  • 16. Cade JR, Reese RH, Privette RM, Hommen NM, Rogers JL, Fregly MJ. Dietary intervention and training in swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1991; 63: 210-215.
  • 17. Kreider RB. Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise. Sports Med 1999; 27: 97-110.
  • 18. Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, et al. Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001, 281:E197-E206.
  • 19. Coyle EF. Substrate utilization during exercise in active people. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61: 968S-979S.
  • 20. Neufer PD, Costill DL, Flynn MG, Kirwan JP, Mitchell JB, Houmard J. Improvements in exercise performance: Effects of carbohydrate feedings and diet. J Appl Physiol 1987; 62: 983-988.
  • 21. Alberici JC, Farrell PA, Kriss-Etherton PM, Shively CA. Effects of pre-exercise candy bar ingestion on glycemic response, substrate utilization, and performance. Int J Sport Nutr 1993; 3: 323-333.
  • 22. Devlin JT, Calles-Escandon J, Horton ES. Effects of preexercise snack feedings on endurance cycle exercise. J Appl Physiol1986; 60: 980-985.
  • 23. Horowitz JF, Coyle EF. Metabolic responses to pre-exercise meals containing various carbohydrates and fat. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 58: 235-241.
  • 24. Foster C, Costill DL, Fonk WJ. Effects of preexercise feedings on endurance performance. Med Sci Sports 1979; 11: 1-5.
  • 25. Van Hall G, Raaymakers JSH, Saris WHM, Wagenmakers AJM. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance. J Physiol 1995; 486: 789 -794.
  • 26. Wee S-L, Williams C, Gray S, Horabin J. Influence of high and low glycemic index meals on endurance running capacity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 393-399.
  • 27. Fernández JM, López Miranda J, Pérez Jiménez F. Índice glucémico y ejercicio físico. Rev Andal Med Deporte 2008; 01:116-24.
  • 28. Rauch H, Clair Gibson A, Lambert E, and Noakes T. A signalling role for muscle glycogen in the regulation of pace during prolonged exercise. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39:34-38.
  • 29. Joaquín Pérez-Guisado. Rendimiento deportivo: glucógeno muscular y consumo proteico Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport 2008; 43:142-51.
  • 30. Hoffman JR. Protein Intake: Effect of Timing. Strength Condit J 2007; 29:26-34.
  • 31. Montain SJ, Coyle EF. Fluid ingestion during exercise increases skin blood flow independent of increases in blood volume. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 903-910.
  • 32. Ladell WSS. The effects of water and salt intake upon the performance of men working in hot and humid environments. J Physiol 1955; 127: 11-46.
  • 33. Montain SJ, Coyle EF. The influence of the rate of fluid ingestion during exercise on skin blood flow and hyperthermia. J Appl Physiol 1992; 73: 1340-1350.
  • 34. Pitts GC, Johnson RE, Consolazio FC. Work in the heat as affected by intake of water, salt and glucose. Am J Physiol 1944;142: 253-259.
  • 35. Saris WHM, Goodpaster BH, Jeukendrup AE, et al. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation from different carbohydrate sources during exercise. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75: 2168-2172.
  • 36. Wagenmakers AJM, Brouns F, Saris WHM, et al. Oxidation rates of orally ingested carbohydrate during prolonged exercise in man. J Appl Physiol 1993; 75: 2774-2780.
  • 37. Walsh RM, Noakes TD, Hawley JA, et al. Impaired high-intensity cycling performance time at low levels of dehydration. Int J Sports Med 1994; 15: 392-398.
  • 38. Jackson DA, Davis JM, Broadwell MS, et al. Effects of carbohydrate feeding on fatigue during intermittent high-intensity exercise in males and females. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27: S223.
  • 39. Ball TC, Headley SA, Vanderburgh PM, et al. Periodic carbohydrate replacement during 50 min of high-intensity cycling improves subsequent sprint performance. Int J Sport Nutr 1995; 5: 151-158.
  • 40. Wagenmakers AJM, Jeukendrup AE, Brouns F, et al. Carbohhydrate feeding improves 1 h time trial cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: S37.
  • 41. Nicholas CW, Williams C, Lakomy HKA, et al. Influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on endurance capacity during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. J Sports Sci 1995; 13: 283-290.
  • 42. Lambert CP, Flynn MG, Boone JB Jr, et al. Effects of carbohydrate feeding on multiple-bout resistance exercise. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1991; 5: 192-197.
  • 43. Akermark C, Jacobs I, Rasmusson M, et al. Diet and muscle glycogen concentration in relation to physical performance in Swedish elite ice hockey players. Int J Sport Nutr 1996; 6: 272-284.
  • 44. Guerra I, Chaves R, Barros T. The Influence of Fluid Ingestion on Performance of Soccer Players During a Match. J Sports Sci Med 2004: 198-202.
  • 45. Sergej M. Ostojic and Sanja Mazic. Effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on specific soccer tests and performance. J Sports Sci Med 2002;1:47-53.
  • 46. Vergauwen L, Brouns F, Hespel P. Carbohydrate supplementation improves stroke performance in tennis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30:1289-1295.
  • 47. Alarcón López F, Ureña Ortín N. Optimización de las ingestas realizadas durante el periodo competitivo en deportes de invasión. Rev int med cienc act fís deporte 2006; 6: 200-11.
  • 48. Below PR, Mora-Rodriguez R, Gonzalez-Alonso J, Coyle EF. Fluid and carbohydrate ingestion independently improve performance during 1 h of intense exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995; 27:200-210.
  • 49. Sugiura K, Kobayashi K. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on sprint performance following continuous and intermittent exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30:1624-1630.
  • 50. Ball TC, Headley SA, Vanderburgh PM, Smith JC. Periodic carbohydrate replacement during 50-min of high-intensity cycling improves subsequent sprint performance. Int Sport Nutr 1995; 5:151-158.
  • 51. Jeukendrup AE, Jentjens R. Oxidation of carbohydrate feedings during prolonged exercise. Current thoughts, guidelines and directions for future research. Sports Med 2000; 29: 407- 424.
  • 52. Jeukendrump AE, Brouns F, Wagenmakers AJM, Sarris WHM. Carbohydrate-electrolyte feedings improve 1 h time trial cycling performance. Int J Sports Med 1997; 18:125-129.
  • 53. Davis JM, Jackson DA, Broadwell MS, Queary JL, Lambert CL. Carbohydrate drinks delay fatigue during intermittent, high intensity cycling in active men and women. Int J Sports Med 1997; 7: 261-273.
  • 54. Valeriani A. The need for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise. Sports Med 1991; 12: 349-358.
  • 55. Mcconnell GK, Kloot K, Hargreaves M. Effect of timing of carbohydrate ingestion on endurance exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 1300-1304.
  • 56. Blom PC, Hostmark AT, Vaage O, kardel KR, Maehlum S. Effect of different post-exercise sugar diets on the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19: 491-496.
  • 57. Esmarck B, Andersen JL, Olsen S, et al. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. J Physiol 2001; 535: 301-311.
  • 58. Levenhagen DK, Gresham JD, Carlson MG, et al. Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 280: E982-E993.
  • 59. Borsheim E, Cree MG, Tipton KD, et al. Effect of carbohydrate intake on net muscle protein synthesis during recovery from esistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 2004, 96: 674-678.
  • 60. Borsheim E, Tipton KD, Wolf SE, et al. Essential amino acids and muscle protein recovery from resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 283: 648-657.
  • 61. Rasmussen BB, Tipton KD, Miller SL, et al. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88: 386-392.
  • 62. Roy BD, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD, et al. Effect of glucose supplementation timing on protein metabolism after resistance training. J Appl Physiol 1997; 82: 1882-1888.
  • 63. Cade JR, Reese RH, Privette RM, et al. Dietary intervention and training in swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1992; 63: 210-215.
  • 64. Chandler RM, Byrne HK, Patterson JG, et al. Dietary supplements affect the anabolic hormones after weight-training exercise. J Appl Physiol 1994; 76: 839-845.
  • 65. Ivy J. Regulation of muscle glycogen repletion, muscle protein synthesis and repair following exercise. J Sports Sci Med 2004; 3:131-38.
  • 66. Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB, Ivy JL. Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72: 1854-1859.
  • 67. Tarnopolsky MA, Bosman M, Macdonald JR, et al. Postexercise protein-carbohydrate and carbohydrate supplements increase muscle glycogen in men and women. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83: 1877-1883.
  • 68. Roy BD, Tarnopolsky MA. Influence of differing macronutrient intakes on muscle glycogen resynthesis after resistance exercise J Appl Physiol 1998; 84: 890-896.
  • 69. Andersen LL, Tufekovic G, Zebis MK, et al.: The effect of resistance training and combined with timed ingestion of protein muscle fiber size and muscle strength. Metabolism 2005; 54:151-156.
  • 70. Kerksick CM, Rasmussen CJ, Lancaster SL, et al. The effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations during ten weeks of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 2006; 20: 643-653.
  • 71. Tipton KD, Gurkin BE, Matin S, et al. Nonessential amino acids are not necessary to stimulate net muscle protein synthesis in healthy volunteers. J Nutr Biochem 1999; 10: 89-95.
  • 72. Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, et al. Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 281: E197-E206.
  • 73. Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S, et al. An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. Am J Physiol 1997; 273: E122-129.
  • 74. Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, et al. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1999, 276: E628-E634.
  • 75. Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Bush JA, Putukian M, Sebastianelli WJ. Hormonal responses to consecutive days of heavy-resistance exercise with or without nutritional supplementation. J Appl Physiol 1998; 85:1544-1555.
  • 76. Montfort V, Steiger S, Craig AW. Carbohydrate intake considerations for young athletes. J Sports Sci Med 2007; 6:343-52.
  • 77. Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Effects of Supplement Timing and Resistance Exercise on Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38:1918-1925.
  • 78. Borsheim E, Aarsland A, Wolfe RR. Effect of an amino acid, protein, and carbohydrate mixture on net muscle protein balance after resistance exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2004; 14: 255-271.
  • 79. Willoughby DS, Stout JR, Wilborn CD. Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength. Amino Acids 2007; 32:466-77.